Childhood as a separate age category emerged during the 19th century. Previously considered primitive beings to be trained through contact with adults, children were now seen as innocent creatures to be protected. At home and outdoors, children were kept away from potential dangers, allowed to play only in safe, select places like the family garden, or under the watchful eye of a nanny in the park. Toys often replicated the adult world, teaching children the values and duties they would have to assume in their future roles as mothers and fathers. Numerous children, generally from well-to-do families, were photographed in William Notman's studio.